In freshwater ecosystems, invasive salmonid fishes can have a significant impact on native fish species. Detecting the invasion and its negative effects is critical for the conservation of native fish communities. We examined the species composition and seasonal changes in the freshwater fish community, including salmonids, on the Kamikawa Plain, Hokkaido Island, Japan, using environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding. We detected 23 fish species in 176 samples collected from 16 sites over 12 months (October 2018 – August 2019). Between 11 and 20 species were detected at each site, including five native salmonids (Oncorhynchus masou, Oncorhynchus keta, Parahucho perryi, Salvelinus leucomaenis leucomaenis and Salvelinus malma krascheninnikova). The invasive alien rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was detected at all 16 sites and it was the most commonly detected salmonid. Although we found no obvious competitive exclusion of native salmonids by rainbow trout in the study area, the invasive species occurred more often and at more sites than any of the natives. We also determined the occurrence and seasonal changes in the fish community, classified as native salmonids, invasive rainbow trout, Cypriniformes and other benthic fishes. There were fewer species overall in winter, but the sites with higher species richness in winter were on the lower reaches of the river. In addition, we detected domestic invaders, such as the topmouth gudgeon, Pseudorasbora parva, although they were less prevalent than rainbow trout. These results show the effectiveness of eDNA metabarcoding, which can be used for surveying species richness at an ecosystem scale. In particular, the detection of the early stages of establishment and spread of invasive species can be achieved by eDNA monitoring.