The elevated NH3-N and NO2-N pollution problems in mariculture have raised concerns because they pose threats to animal health and coastal and offshore environments. Supplement of Marichromatium gracile YL28 (YL28) into polluted shrimp rearing water and sediment significantly decreased ammonia and nitrite concentrations, showing that YL28 functioned as a novel safe marine probiotic in the shrimp culture industry. The diversity of aquatic bacteria in the shrimp mariculture ecosystems was studied by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA genes, with respect to additions of YL28 at the low and high concentrations. It was revealed by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis that Proteobacteria, Planctomycete and Bacteroidetes dominated the community (>80% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs)). Up to 41.6% of the predominant bacterial members were placed in the classes Gammaproteobacteria (14%), Deltaproteobacteria (14%), Planctomycetacia (8%) and Alphaproteobacteria (5.6%) while 40% of OTUs belonged to unclassified ones or others, indicating that the considerable bacterial populations were novel in our shrimp mariculture. Bacterial communities were similar between YL28 supplements and control groups (without addition of YL28) revealed by the β-diversity using PCoA, demonstrating that the additions of YL28 did not disturb the microbiota in shrimp mariculture ecosystems. Instead, the addition of YL28 increased the relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing and denitrifying bacteria. The quantitative PCR analysis further showed that key genes including nifH and amoA involved in nitrification and nitrate or nitrite reduction significantly increased with YL28 supplementation (p < 0.05). The supplement of YL28 decreased the relative abundance of potential pathogen Vibrio. Together, our studies showed that supplement of YL28 improved the water quality by increasing the relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing and denitrifying bacteria while the microbial community structure persisted in shrimp mariculture ecosystems.