The Haima cold seep, which is one of the two active cold seeps in the South China Sea, is known for its great ecological importance. The seep bivalves are assumed to depend mainly on their bacterial symbiosis for survival and growth. However, information on the bacterial diversity, composition, and putative function of gill-associated of dominant dwelling animals in Haima cold seep remain elusive. Herein, we adopted a high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, and function prediction methods (Functional Annotation of Prokaryotic Taxa (FAPROTAX) and Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICURUSTs)) to purposely illustrate the taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity, composition, and putative functions of the symbionts in bathymodiolin mussel Gigantidas haimaensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae: Gigantidas) and vesicomyid clam Archivesica marissinica (Bivalvia: Glossoidea: Vesicomyidae). The predominant microbes of both species were Proteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria on the phylum and class level, respectively. The taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of gill microbial communities in G. haimaensis were significantly different from those in A. marissinica (p < 0.05). Nine functional groups, including seven carbon-related biogeochemical groups, were identified through the FAPROTAX analysis. However, the most dominant groups for G. haimaensis and A. marissinica were both chemoheterotrophic. G. haimaensis and A. marissinica shared many pathways, however, 16 obtained Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologous groups (42.11%) significantly differed between the two species (p < 0.05). These findings would provide insight into the functions of microbes in the element cycling and energy flow as well as the host-symbiont relationship of bivalves in the Haima cold seep environment.